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# <a name="Selected References for Fin Desi"></a> Selected References for Fin Design

(Another good link on this topic: <http://rocketsforschools.com/teachers/stability.html> )

- James S. Barrowman &amp; Judith A. Barrowman,<br />"THE THEORETICAL PREDICTION OF THE CENTER OF PRESSURE"<br />NARAM-8 R&amp;D Project, August 18, 1966<br />Available here: [http://www.apogeerockets.com/education/downloads/Barrowman\_report.pdf](http://www.apogeerockets.com/education/downloads/Barrowman_report.pdf)<br />This is the seminal paper on model rocket stability. The derivation is fairly clear. The methods presented are based on linearized subsonic flow theory.

- James S. Barrowman<br />CALCULATING THE CENTER OF PRESSURE OF A MODEL ROCKET<br />Centuri Engineering Company, TECHNICAL INFORMATION REPORT 33 (TIR-33)<br />Available from several sources on the web. Here as a pdf file: [[/ProjectLV2FinDesignReferences/tir-33.zip]] (4.3M)<br />Contains worked numerical examples of the Barrowman equations.

Fin rigidity is also important:

- Duncan McDonald<br />"Fin Flutter"<br />Submitted to "Rocketry Online"<br />[http://www.info-central.org/design\_finflutter.shtml](http://www.info-central.org/design_finflutter.shtml)<br />

Here are a few papers commenting on the original Barrowman theory:

- Tom McAtee<br />"Comparison of Barrowman Stability Analysis with Wind Tunnel Data"<br />NAR 21412, Submitted at NARAM-40, August 10, 1998<br /><http://www.apogeerockets.com/education/downloads/McAtee.pdf><br />The basic conclusion is that the Barrowman method is accurate to within a few percent up until the transonic regime.

- Robert Galejs<br />"Wind Instability, WHAT BARROWMAN LEFT OUT"<br />Sentinel 39<br /><http://www.argoshpr.ch/PDF/sentinel39-galejs.pdf><br />Adds terms to the Barrowman equations to account for body lift.

- Max Feil<br />"Center of Gravity &amp; Pitch Stability"<br />"From The Aeronautics File" Topic #2<br /><http://www.mat.uc.pt/~pedro/ncientificos/artigos/aeronauticsfile2.ps><br /> Also available as a pdf: [[/ProjectLV2FinDesignReferences/aeronauticsfile2.pdf]] (22k)<br />Presents a few basics. Gives a fairly good explanation of the "Center of Pressure" concept.

The Barrowman equations start to break down around Mach 0.7 . To accurately model higher speeds requires a more laborious approach. Here is a starting point:

- Sidney M. Harmon &amp; Margaret D. Swanson<br />"CALCULATIONS OF THE SUPERSONIC WAVE DRAG OF NONLIFTING WINGS WITH ARBITRARY SWEEPBACK AND ASPECT RATIO, WINGS SWEPT BEHIND THE MACH LINES"<br />NACA TN 1319, May 1947<br /><http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/reports/1947/naca-tn-1319/naca-tn-1319.pdf><br />