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[[!meta title="PSAS Avionics Team"]]

# Avionics Home Page

[[!img Evolution_of_avionics_block_diagrams.png size="350x657" class="picture"]]

The Avionics team is currently working on 'AV4' class hardware and firmware for the [[Launch Vehicle No. 2c|ProjectLV2]] airframe. The AV4 hardware is run by an Intel Atom-based PCI-104 flight computer (FC) attached to various sensor and actuator nodes using Ethernet as a low-latency safety critical bus and USB as an easy, non-time-critical bulk-data bus. The sensors and actuators include a GPS, IMU, power system, and the beginnings of a control system.

If you're new to the avionics team, or you want some information on a previous system, please see our [[Introduction to PSAS Avionics Page|AvionicsIntro]]. Then figure out how you want to "jump in" to a ridiculously complicated project by choosing one of our many current projects, listed below.

<!-- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->


# AV4 Current Projects

The AV4-NEXT section shows what we want to fly on our next flight. This list is all the things we need to do to get there. Something sound interesting? Come to a meeting and we'll get you started.

- Avionics
   - Rocketnet Hub (RNH): Ethernet switch power supply LDO to SPS upgrade adapter board
   - Rocketnet connector v2 design using #0-80 hardware
   - Cabling for the Rocketnet v1 connectors on the RNH to the various nodes (final cabling depends on node placement)
   - Ethernet SDR GPS receiver (MAX2769 breakout, new node6 board, and integrated unit)
   - BQ3600 battery fuel gauge and conditioner board
   - Replace AV3-IMU node with a node6 board
   - Replace AV3-RC node with a node6 board in the roll control module
   - Move Crescent GPS receiver to Ethernet using a node6 board (including implementing a broadcast 1 PPS packet)
   - Implement Ethernet digital video receiver using raspberri pi or beagleboard bone or other small formfactor A8
   - Figure out how to do true PoE+ for the umbilical cord so we can stick with 5 leads umbilical cord, or just go ahead and update the umbilical cord to 7+ pins
- Communications
   - Split GPS antenna into two feeds after LNA for Crescent + new SDR Ethernet GPS
   - Find new, smaller USB to WiFi adapter (bonus points for find an Ethernet to WiFi adapter!) and 2.4 GHz PA
   - Multiple circularly polarized 1.5 GHz patch antennas with radius feeds to center tap.
   - Multiple circularly polarized 2.4 GHz patch antennas with radius feeds to center tap.
- LTC
   - Fix shore power converter on LTC to not continuously reboot when avionics system is on
   - Add weather station to LT/LTC (wind speed and direction)
   - Siren and flash and slow blinky light to LT/LTC
   - Upgrade to a Minnow board if this makes sense
- TrackMaster 3000
   - Move power to single Ethernet cable with PoE
   - Add 2.4 GHz WiFi adapter to Rapberry Pi
   - Upgrade to Minnow board if this makes sense
- Rocket Tracks
   - Finish 3x Ethernet nodes and GMC boards and bundle in case
   - Finish mechanical design (last motor?)
   - TrackMaster-compatible PoE-powered "plate" for Rocket Tracks
   - Mount video camera and SightLine integration
- [[STM32 Firmware|avionics/firmware/fw_stm32f407]]

# Avionics System Documentation

We now organize our documentation according to avionics generation and launch in the format "generation-launch". Thus "AV3-L10" means Avionics Generation 3 that was flown on Launch 10.

## AV4-NEXT

This is the next system *planned* to fly on our, next flight, "L11", sometime in summer 2014. Although things have only incrementally changed since AV3, AV4 denotes the full move to Ethernet and the trend for smaller systems in order to eventually fit the CubeSat form factor. 

[<img src="http://psas.github.io/Launch-11/avionics/AV4_overview.svg" width="800" height="700">](http://psas.github.io/Launch-11/AV4_overview.svg)
 
- [[Atom-based FC PCI-104 stack|av3_atom_fc_stack]] running Linux 3.x and [Flight Computer Framework (FCF)](https://github.com/psas/av3-fc) software infrastructure
- [[AV4 battery board|avionics/av3-battery-board]]
- [[16.8 V 4 Ahr Li polymer battery pack|avionics/av3-battery-pack]]
- USB nodes
   - [[Hemisphere Crescent OEM SX-2 GPS receiver|avionics/av3-gps]] with [GPS Source](http://www.gpssource.com/) LNA and a USB to serial adapter carrier board.
   - [[Alfa Network AWUS051NH USB to 802.11a/b/g/n adapter|communications/c_band_telemetry]] running 802.11a at 5.3 GHz with 5 GHz power amplifier
- Ethernet nodes
   - New [[RocketNet hub|avionics/Capstone2012]]: Power and Ethernet distribution board (replaces the old APS)
   - New [[AV4 STM32F407-based avionics node with Ethernet ("node6")|avionics/node6]] (replaces the USB-based "node5" boards)
   - Our interim development boards: The Olimex [[STM32-E407|OlimexSTM32-E407]]
   - New Ethernet SDR GPS receiver based on the MAX2769
   - Upgrade of [[AV3-IMU|avionics/av3-imu]] STM32-based Inertial Measurement Unit (both the ADIS and Theo IMUs)
   - Upgrade of [[AV3-RC|avionics/av3-rc]] STM32-based roll control module
   - [[data protocol|avionics/av3-data-protocol]]
   - [[STM32 Firmware|avionics/av3_firmware/av3_stm32f407_firmware]]
   - [[Custom 3d printed Ethernet+Power interconnect system|avionics/av3_rocketnet_connector]]
   - [[Ethernet networking|avionics/av3-networking]]
   - New digital video board, with digital video in and Ethernet packets out.
- Upgrade of the [[360 degree video capture system|avionics/360video]], system, now with 10 GoPro cameras
- Secondary [high resolution digital camera with DVR](http://www.boostervision.com/)
- Three [[conformal cylindrical patch antennas|cpadesignv4]] at 1.5, 2.4 and 5.3 GHz

The planned ground system:

- [[rockettracks]] motorized telemetry and video tracking system
- Trackmaster 3000 shoulder-mounted receive system, now using a single Ethernet + PoE system
- [Launch Tower Computer system](https://github.com/psas/launch-tower) based on a [BeagleBoard](http://beagleboard.org/) running Linux and [Phidget USB DAQ/conbtrol system](http://www.phidgets.com/)
- [launch control software](https://github.com/psas/launch-tower-comm)
- [HTML5-based telemetry viewer](https://github.com/psas/telemetry)


## AV3-L10 ([[June 2013|launch10]])

This was the first launch of our untested and mostly not-ready avionics system. We moved to an Intel Atom flight computer, with a mix of USB and newer Ethernet nodes. The flight was successful, but a FC reboot 4 ms into the flight erased any useful data from the boost phase of the flight. 

[[!img LV2_3_june.png size="x200" alt="AV3-L10 diagram" ]]
[[!img avionics_payload_partial_assy.png size="x200" alt="AV3-L10 Payload under assembly" ]]

- Flight computer
   - [[Atom-based FC PCI-104 stack|av3_atom_fc_stack]]
   - [[x86 FC search|avionics/av3_x86_fc_search]]
   - [[AV3 flight computer documentation|avionics/av3-fc]]
   - New [Flight Computer Framework (FCF)](https://github.com/psas/av3-fc) built by a PSU CS capstone team
- Sensor/actuator nodes
   - USB-based
      - [[Hemisphere Crescent OEM SX-2 GPS receiver|avionics/av3-gps]] with [GPS Source](http://www.gpssource.com/) LNA and a USB to serial adapter carrier board.
      - [[Alfa Network AWUS051NH USB to 802.11a/b/g/n adapter|communications/c_band_telemetry]] running 802.11a at 5.3 GHz with 5 GHz power amplifier
      - [[AV3 USB-based avionics power system (APS)|avionics/av3-power]] based on the LPC2468 USB-based Generic Front End|av3-generic-front-end]] "node" boards
   - Ethernet-based
      - [[AV3-IMU|avionics/av3-imu]] STM32-based Inertial Measurement Unit (both the ADIS and Theo IMUs)
      - [[AV3-RC|avionics/av3-rc]] STM32-based roll control module
      - [[AV3 data protocol|avionics/av3-data-protocol]]
      - [[AV3 STM32 Firmware|avionics/av3_firmware/av3_stm32f407_firmware]]
      - [[Custom 3d printed Ethernet+Power interconnect system|avionics/av3_rocketnet_connector]]
      - [[Ethernet networking|avionics/av3-networking]]
- New [[360 degree video capture system|avionics/360video]] using 5 GoPro cameras
- [[2.4 GHz amateur TV transmitter|communications/s_band_atv]] with compsite camera
- Secondary [high resolution digital camera with DVR](http://www.boostervision.com/)
- Three [[conformal cylindrical patch antennas|cpadesignv4]] at 1.5, 2.4 and 5.3 GHz
- [[16.8 V 4 Ahr Li polymer battery pack|avionics/av3-battery-pack]]

The ground system was:

- Trackmaster 3000 shoulder-mounted receive system, now with Raspberry pi WiFi to LAN adapter
- A completely new [Launch Tower Computer system](https://github.com/psas/launch-tower) based on a [BeagleBoard](http://beagleboard.org/) running Linux and [Phidget USB DAQ/conbtrol system](http://www.phidgets.com/)
- New [launch control software](https://github.com/psas/launch-tower-comm)
- A prototype of the [HTML5-based telemetry viewer](https://github.com/psas/telemetry) written by PSU CS capstone team


## AV3-L09 ([[July 2011|news/2011-07-31/]])

This was the first post-2005 avionics system that went beyond a single microcontroller. We had a PowerPC-based flight computer with USB-based ARM nodes. This system was launched, but never technically flew: the motor exploded on ignition, causing the rocket to be thrown 10-15 m in the air.

Block diagrams of the planned AV3-L09 avionics system:

- [[onboard avionics system|avionics/lv2_avionics_diagram_2006-09-30.pdf]]
- [[network and ground systems|avionics/system_diagram_2006-10-16.pdf]]

What was actually "flown":

- [[TQMS5200 PowerPC flight computer|FlightComputerAv3]] running Linux 2.6
- [[16.8 V 4 Ahr Li polymer battery pack|avionics/av3-battery-pack]]
- [[AV3 LPC2468 USB-based Generic Front End|av3-generic-front-end]] "node" boards
   - [[AV3 Power System|avionics/av3-power]]
- [[Hemisphere Crescent OEM SX-2 GPS receiver|avionics/av3-gps]] with [GPS Source](http://www.gpssource.com/) LNA
- [[Alfa Network AWUS051NH USB to 802.11a/b/g/n adapter|communications/c_band_telemetry]] running 802.11a at 5.3 GHz with 5 GHz power amplifier
- [[2.4 GHz amateur TV transmitter|communications/s_band_atv]]
- Three next-generation [[conformal cylindrical patch antennas|cpadesignv4]] at 1.5, 2.4 and 5.3 GHz

The ground system was also new:

- Trackmaster 3000, the next generation shoulder-mounted receive system
 

## L07 ([[June 2010|lv2c_launchdata-2010-06-27]]) and L08 ([[October 2010|http://psas.pdx.edu/news/2010-10-17-2/]])

These two launches were our first attempts at a control system: we use a servo-controlled set of small canards to control the vehicle's roll. It used a microcontroller-based control system to keep the control real time, simple and reliable. Both launches the avionics system worked perfectly, but roll control only worked with the L08 flight after the addition of a [[spin can|lv2cspincan]].

- [[Olimex LPC-P2378 roll control board|rollcontrol]], gathering data from a pressure sensor, accelerometer, and gyroscope and PWMing the [[roll control servo|rollcontrol]].
- CAN logger module, which logged the output of the Olimex board.
- [Opal 6 DOF logging IMU with magnetometer](http://apdm.com/Wearable-Sensors/Opal) on loan from APDM
- [Telemetrum open source COTS flight computer](http://www.altusmetrum.org/TeleMetrum/)
- A composite output camera being recorded by an onboard DVR
- Primary 9V and Lithium battery packs for video, and Rechargeable Li polymer packs for roll control
- Ground system was simply the 2005 launch tower computer and a new launch rail, plus the Telemetrum telemetry receiver.


## L06 ([[May 2009|news/2009-05-31]])

This was our "return to flight" launch, and was primarily a test of the L2.3 airframe. The avionics suite was limited:

- [Telemetrum open source COTS flight computer](http://www.altusmetrum.org/TeleMetrum/)
- [Olimex LPC-P2378 board](https://www.olimex.com/Products/ARM/NXP/LPC-P2378/) gathering data from three pressure sensors (SCP1000, MP3, and ADXS) and an ADXL3xx 2 axis accelerometer
- 2m recovery backup system, which used a Alinco DJ-7T 2m radio hooked into a Atmel ATMega168 with a DTMF decode chip 
- Primary 9V and Lithium battery packs
- Ground system was simply the 2005 launch tower computer and a new launch rail, plus the Telemetrum telemetry receiver.

## AV2-L05 ([[August 2005|news/2005-08-20]])

AV2 was arguably the most sophisticated amateur rocket avionics planet for its time: an x86 flight computer running Linux and using WiFi for telemetry, a GPS, an IMU, an entire ground-based telemetry network, and even open source Java-based launch control and telemetry viewing system. The avionics performed flawlessly, but was destroyed when the recovery system gas generator failed to operate. The telemetry ground systems worked, but failed to record the flight video despite two redundant systems.

- [[MOPS520 586 PCI-104 Flight Computer|FlightComputer]] running Linux 2.4 and [[open source flight control software|FlightComputerSoftware]]
- 2.4 GHz [[WiFi-based telemetry|WiFi]] power amplified under an amateur radio license ("ARRL 802.11b") 
- 16.8 V 4 Ahr [[Rechargeable Lithium ion battery pack|BatteryPackLv2]]
- Aliminum[[avionics module framework|AvionicsModuleLv2]]
- Five [[PIC18F458 8-bit microcontroller "nodes"|CanNodes]] communicating over the CAN (Controller Area Network) bus running an [[open source firmware framework|PicCore]]
   - [[Amateur TV System|LvTwoAmateurTelevisionOverview]]: Broadcasts NTSC video with text overlay at 1.25 GHz
   - [[Avionics Power System|AvionicsPowerSystemLv2]]: power switches, battery and bus monitoring
   - [[Inertial Measurement Unit: inertial sensors (also pressure and temperature sensors)|InertialMeasurementUnit]]
   - [[Recovery Node|RecoveryNodeLV2]]: Battery backed up 2m radio receiver and pyrotechnic actuators
   - [[Rockwell "Jupiter" GPS receiver|GlobalPositioningSystem]]
- Three conformal [[cylindrical patch antennas|CpaDesignv3]] at 1.2, 1.5, and 2.4 GHz

There was also a sophisticated ground system to launch and receive telemetry:

- [[Launch Tower:|Lv2LaunchTowerElectronics]]
   - [[Launch Tower Computer (LTC)|Lv2LaunchTowerComputer]]: A Linux-based x86 PC104 stack with Lucent Orinoco 802.11b card and CAN
   - [[24dBi 2.4GHz 802.11b parabolic dish antenna|Communications]] ("BBQ" grill antenna)
   - [[Launch Tower Relay (LTR) board|Lv2LaunchTowerRelay]]: PIC18F458-based CAN node with four relays and some analog sampling
   - [[RocketReady Relay (RRR) board|Lv2RocketReadyRelay]]: PIC18F458-based board which provides rocketready relay interlock in firing chain
   - [[Launch Igniter Circuit|Lv2LaunchTowerIgniter]]: igniter circuit for launch igniter
   - [[Umbilical cord|Lv2UmbilicalCord]]: Connects LV2 to the electronics box. Provides shore power, includes rocketready relay interlock
   - [[Launch Tower Power System|Lv2LaunchTowerPower]]:Solar array, charge controller, and battery
- [[TrackMaster 2000 receive system|communications]] to receive 2.4 GHz WiFi telemetry and 1.2 GHz amateur TV signals
- [[RocketView]] (and [[LaunchControl]]), an open source Java-based telemetry viewer and launch controller that ran on Linux laptops

## L3 ([[September 2002|news/2002-09-22]]) and L4 ([[September 2003|news/2003-09-21]])

These flights were airframe-only flights to test our new "LV2" class airframe. They used COTS amateur rocket flight computers to deploy the recovery system.


## AV1-L2 ([[October 2000|news/2000-10-07/]])

This system was an upgrade to our AV1 system. We added a GPS receiver, commercially made PCBs, better batteries, and reworked the entire system. The ground station software was our first use of open source software. It flew successfully, and was the last of our 8-bit avionics systems as we realized it was time to seriously upgrade our system.

- 33 MHz PIC17C766 Microcontroller flight computer with 1MB external SRAM
- Upgraded 6 DOF IMU (12 bit ADC, better gyros)
- Power amplified 900 MHz 19.2kbps telemetry downlink
- Rockwell GPS board
- 2m amateur radio DTMF-activated uplink for manual recovery system control
- First avionics system with a launch tower umbilical (LTU) cable including Launch Detect and "Rocket Ready" signal
- Primary Lithium battery pack
- Ground station was a Linux-based C telemetry viewer.
- Recovery system fired by flight computer
- See the [[project page|LV1/Payload/LV1b_Payload/]] for more information


## AV1-L1 ([[April 1999|news/1999-04-11]])

A new avionics system, based off a slightly more powerful 8-bit microcontroller and a dawning desire to understand rocket dynamics. In 1999, this may have been the first amateur rocket with a 6 DOF solid-state IMU. The PCBs for this system were design on CAD and hand-etched at a volunteer's house. Flew successfully.

- PIC17C42 microcontroller flight computer
- Full 6 DOF inertial measurement unit with MEMs accelerometers and piezo-electric bar gyros.
- Color CCD video camera with a 400 MHz ATV transmitter
- 2400bps digital data downlink on ATV transmitter sound channel
- 2m amateur radio DTMF-activated uplink for manual recovery system control
- Pressure and temperature sensors
- Primary Lithium battery pack
- Ground station was a DOS-based laptop
- Recovery system fired by flight computer
- See the [[project page|LV1/Payload/LV1a_Payload]] for more information


## AV0-L0 ([[June 1998|news/1998-06-07]])

Our first avionics system, based on a small 8-bit microcontroller soldered on a protoboard. Flew successfully, except for a short in the telemetry data downlink.

- PIC16F84 microcontroller flight computer
- Single axis accelerometer
- 400 MHz amateur TV downlink with 300 bps telemetry on the audio channel
- Primary Lithium battery pack
- Ground station was a DOS-based laptop
- Recovery system was a standard amateur rocket motor-based gas deployment
- See the [[project page|LV0]] for more information


<!-- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -->


# Sponsored projects

These projects are undergraduate engineering capstones that PSAS has sponsored:

- [[Capstone 2012 project|avionics/Capstone2012]]: RocketNet hub (Power and Ethernet distribution board)
- [[Capstone 2010 project|avionics/Capstone2010]]: Flight computer carrier board
- [[Capstone 2009 project|Capstone2009]]: The Avionics Power Supply (APS)
- [[Capstone 2006 project|CapstoneLV2bProjectReport]]: The node 4 generic front end

# Misc other stuff!

- [[Generic Motor Driver|generic-motor-driver]]

Deprecated and unorganized subsystems:

- [[PV-700 Digital Video Recorder|avionics/pv-700-video-recorder]]
- [[ARTS-2 Flight Computer|avionics/arts2_flight_computer]]
- [[New LV2c recovery node|Recovery_node_lv2c]]
- [[IMU Calibration|IMUCalibration]]
- [[Avionics to-do list|AvionicsToDoList]]
- [[Avionics to-get list|AvionicsToGetList]]
- [[Bob-4 Video Overlay Board|BOB4VideoOverlay]]
- [[Airframe Test Computer Info|avionics/airframe_test_computer]]
- [[Magnetometer|MagnetometerLv2]]: 3D sensing of the Earth's magnetic field
- [[Our current to do list|avionics-to-do]] 
- [GPL-GPS](http://gps.psas.pdx.edu/)
- [[avionics/Pressure_Sensors]]



Avionics Hardware Tools
-----------------------

- Electrical
   - [[Electrical Nomenclature|RocketNames]]: Project naming conventions, names for components, schematics, etc.
   - [[GerberTools]]
   - [[AvionicsSVNAccess]]: getting access to the Avionics software itself
- [[EagleCad]]: Cadsoft's EAGLE schematic capture/PCB CAD program
- [[LPKF 91 router information|LpkfRouter]]


Avionics Software Tools
-----------------------

- To develop firmware on the rocket nodes, you'll need to get set up for [[avionics/AV3 firmware development]].
- Deprecated: Page for [[the software for the sensor nodes|LPC2148Software]]
- Deprecated: Getting up and running with [[Olimex LPC2148, openocd, eclipse etc|OlimexLPC2148Setup]]
- Deprecated: Yet another getting started [[tool chain and development environment setup|FwDevSetupLPC2148]]
- Deprecated: [[LPC USB Isochronous Mode|LPCUBSIsochronous]]


Other Advanced Amateur Avionics Systems
---------------------------------------

- Robert DeHate: <http://www.geocities.com/rdh82000/L3/>
- Also see the Uncertainty team homepage for a list of actively guided rockets.

[Off Topic]
-----------

From Spencer Webb of AntennaSys:

- **Webb's Law of Project Complexity:** "All good projects go from simple to insanely complex, then back to simple after a required epiphany."
- **Corollary to WLPC:** "If the project never gets to the insanely complex stage, it is probably not worth doing."
- **Second Corollary to WLPC:** "If the epiphany never comes, the project will likely be an insanely complex failure."



# Avionics Team Meeting Minutes

To add a new entry, please use the data as the name of the page in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Don't forget to uncomment the avionics news tag!

[[!inline rootpage="news" pages="news/* and !news/*/* and tagged(avionics)" archive="yes" sort="title" reverse="yes" template="titlepage"]]